Abstract– Intelligent irrigation system transforms the concept of the traditional approach of irrigation policy to a modern approach with an automation. This paper has focused on the implementation of smart irrigation project to support the current agriculture system with the intention to help farmers. Through this system, farmers were able to control water supply to their agricultural land through their smartphone with just messaging. This system is based on GSM technology, Atmega328 microcontroller and electric motor controller. Farmers were able to utilize their precious time in other important task and there will be no need for real-time monitoring by the user, System itself perform this task. This approach is based on global communication through which a user can control and monitor their field globally. The development of this product has been fruitful in the field of agriculture system.
Keyword: Atmega328 microcontroller, GSM module SIM900A, Irrigation System, LCS module.
Agriculture is the backbone of a country like India. An automation technology that is used in the field of irrigation is going to transform manual approach into an intelligent irrigation system. This project is based on Global communication and automation, which will be implemented with GSM smartphone. This device includes a LCS (Lochan Control System) module for motor control, through this a user can able to control and monitor the water level in the field. In the case of a sufficient water level drawn in the field, then this system will automatically stop the motor so, that the water supply to that particular land will get stopped. The operation of this embedded system has been developed with the microcontroller Atmega328 (Arduino Uno) with interfacing GSM module SIM900A for the establishment of communication platform. The control circuit for the control of an electric motor has been handled by LCS module and which include relay, transistor BC547 NPN, Buzzer for sound as a notification and some connecting pins. Yielding better productivity of crops in agriculture, various devices based on AI were developed using various sensors and microcontrollers for the fabrication of an embedded system which is designed to perform a specific task. The various problems that are observed in the field of agriculture can be solved by manufacturing robots, electronic projects and IoT processing devices with an effective communication network. In the field of agriculture, AI is an emerging technology which changes the methodology of irrigation. With the development of AI-based equipment and machines, today’s agriculture system is enhancing on the next level. This concept will help for real-time monitoring. This paper is organized in such a way that the literature survey has been discussed in section II. An electronic component that is used for the manufacturing of this project is denoted by Technology Used and has been discussed in section III, Similarly, An interface between different block of electronic component has depicted by System Architecture and is represented on Section IV, Hardware Testing and Implementation has been demonstrated in Section V and finally the Conclusion with Future Work has declared on Section VI. An Acknowledgment and References have been organized sequentially after the final conclusion.
II. Literature Survey
In this section, Irrigation related works by various authors based on IOT, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), and Automation has been discussed. Taneja and Bhatia proposed a system based on an automatic irrigation system using Arduino Uno in which an algorithm has been developed to proceed with the automation system. Moisture sensor has been used for the real-time monitoring of agricultural land so as to measure the moisture content of the soil. According to the desire for water supply, Motor will be controlled as per the instruction supplied on a microcontroller . Rehman et al developed an irrigation system based on GSM technology with interfacing moisture, temperature and humidity sensor. The controlling of a motor has been performed in accordance with the sensor reading value of moisture. Arduino mega has been used as the main controller of this project which interface all peripherals and an electric supply has been provided with the solar panel . Gulati and Thakur proposed a system that is based on IOT for an establishment of smart irrigation. They execute the concept of IOT through ESP8266 WIFI module with interfacing Arduino Uno. Also, a soil moisture sensor is used to examine the moisture contents of the soil. As per the result of moister contents in the soil decides an operation of a motor and a real-time notification to a user has been transmitted through an android application . R. Nageswara Rao and B.Sridhar develop developed IoT based automatic irrigation system with raspberry PI. This system interfaces two sensors, temperature and moisture sensor for real-time monitoring of soil. This system is based on Precision Agriculture (PA) with cloud computing, that will optimize the usage of water fertilizers while maximizing the yield of the crops and also claims that it help in analyzing the weather conditions of the field . Trifun Savić and Milutin Radonjić proposed an architecture of a Zigbee wireless sensor network for application in a smart irrigation system. In this paper, an Arduino-based sensor node for an acquisition of soil moisture and air temperature is described. Proposed architecture allows flexible implementation with reliable data transfer that provides necessary information for autonomous decision-making in smart irrigation system . Vijula Grace et al proposed the automated system to make effective utilization of water resources for agriculture and crop growth monitoring using GSM. The output signals of the sensors are coordinated by the microcontroller and transmitted to the user with the help of a GSM Modem. An author claims that the optimized water use for an agriculture crop has been achieved successfully by this system . Nikhil Agrawal and Smita Singhal developed a Smart Drip Irrigation System using Raspberry Pi and Arduino. This paper proposes a design for a home automation system using ready-to-use, cost-effective and energy efficient devices including raspberry pi, Arduino microcontrollers, XBee modules and relay boards. The use of ultrasound sensors and solenoid valves make a smart drip irrigation system. An author highlight that the design can be used in big agriculture fields as well as in small gardens via just sending an email to the system . Abaya et. al proposed a smart irrigation system with futuristic farming based on a self-activating irrigation technology. This paper focuses on implementing an irrigation system with microcontroller Arduino uno and sensor mechanism which include soil moisture sensor and humidity sensor. It also depicts the survey information of the Philippines which demonstrates the water consumption in both traditional and automatic irrigation approach . Ananthi et. al proposed the system called IoT based Smart Soil Monitoring System for Agricultural Production. This approach is mainly based on raspberry pi and web camera, through this device real-time image of the crop has been captured and transmitted to the field manager to suggest pesticides. Automatic irrigation was conducted when the temperature becomes high. The sensors used for the implementation of this approach are the pH sensor, Temperature sensor and Humidity sensor .
III. Technology Used
Arduino Uno Atmega328: The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the Atmega328. The ATmega328 is a single-chip microcontroller created by Atmel in the megaAVR family. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller and simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started .
LCS Module: This module has been implemented for controlling an AC electrical appliance as well as a buzzer. The development of this circuit has been carried out with the use of two NPN transistors BC547 acts as a switching mechanism. A transistor as a switch has been performed and through this, a relay can drive on respective condition, so that an electrical appliance can control through this device. Being an operating voltage of DC 5 V, a user can interface this module with Raspberry Pi for an effective system implementation .
GSM Module SIM900A: GSM SIM 900A coming with the interface between TTL logic to RS-232 through chip MAX-232. The RS-232 interface on GSM/GPRS Modem gives the features to connect PC as well as Microcontroller. This modem is working on the frequencies 900/1800 MHz and the baud rate is configurable from 9600-115200 through AT command. The GSM/GPRS Modem is having internal TCP/IP stack to enable us to connect with the internet via GPRS . GSM module is used as an establishment of a communication platform. It can receive and transmit message signal between an embedded system and user smartphone. This module has been interfaced with main controller Atmega328, where the transmitter pin of Atmega328 microcontroller is connected with receiver pin of GSM module SIM900A and vice versa. This module is applicable for voice and data transfer as M2M interface. This module has an onboard regulator which can regulate the variation of an input voltage to stabilized voltage. Normally we used 12V DC Power supply for this module. Internet connection can be achieved through the GPRS platform with the use of simple AT command .
Lochan Control System Module (Automatic Water Pump Controller): Lochan control system module was designed and developed by “Lochan Basyal” and it is based on Automation. It has a different version and among them, one is used for an automatic motor controller, which is developed with IC (Integrated Circuit) Technology approach with other interfacing circuits and components. This module includes LM324 (Comparator IC), Relay and POT (Potentiometer also called variable resistor). The Circuit design has been presented on figure 4 and PCB (Printed Circuit Board) design of this module with PCB wizard software is depicted in figure 5 and 6 respectively. Figure 7 represents the final product view of LCS module.
Fig. 1 Circuit Diagram of a motor controller
IV. Hardware Testing and Implementation
Fig. 2 Hardware Implementation
V. Conclusion with Future Work
Intelligent irrigation system with global communication and automation has been developed with the feature of compact size, more efficiency, feasibility and low manufacturing cost. This product was developed with the interface of LCS module for the implementation of an effective automation which helps to a facile operation of an electric Motor. The fabrication of this project will lead to maintaining intelligent irrigation, hence a user can operate a system with their smartphone through globally. This approach can be modified in the future with the application of Artificial Intelligence-based automation and communication system so that the farmers living around the world were able to execute their task more easily.
An Author like to express sincere gratitude to his Professor Dr. Narinder Sharma for his guidance, support and valuable suggestions to proceed on the project during research. He also wants to thanks to his friend Pramatma Ram Shah for his support and finally appreciate his parents for everything.
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1Lochan Basyal, 2Ruby Raj Shrestha, 3Rasbihari Sharma 4Dr. Narinder Sharma
13Btech. Scholar, 2Bsc. Ag Scholar, 4Professor and HOD
134Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
2Department of Agriculture
1234Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar, India
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